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Several of the most famous kingdoms and empires of western Africa were located in the Sudan, a region that lies between the Sahara to the north and the rainforests to the south. Ancient Ghana was a powerful trading empire in what are now Mali and Mauritania. Led by the Soninke people, Ghana was at its strongest from the 600s to the 1200s.


conflict were unique. In addition, the countries' politi-cal and economic systems differed widely and the conflicts were at different stages when the Africa Bureau launched an initiative. Nevertheless, there are some general conclusions worth drawing from the Bureau's experiences in dealing with these conflicts.


Evidence suggests that Africa's slave trades played an important part in the shaping of the continent not only in terms of economic outcomes, but cultural and social outcomes as well. This column, taken from a recently published VoxEU eBook, summarises studies that reveal the lasting toxic effects of Africa's four waves of slave trades on contemporary …


problematic in Africa It is held partly responsible for the 'irrationalities' of the development project, for political instability and weak national identity. It has been blamed for outmoded values and regressive consciousness, for fostering corruption and destructive conflict And now there is some concern that the


The Effects of 'Youth Bulge' on Civil Conflicts. The presence of idle and unemployed young people in the developing world, or so-called "youth bulge," is …


U.S. and Chinese goals in Africa do not necessarily conflict, and the engagement of both economic powers could be advantageous to Africans. Sino-African relations are a vibrant, two-way dynamic in which both sides adjust to policy initiatives and popular perceptions emanating from the other. RAND researchers have assessed Chinese and African ...


Starting a Business. Starting a business is a lengthy procedure in sub-Saharan Africa and can cost a significant proportion of income per capita. This is partly true of South Africa, although the cost of starting a business is only 0.3% of income per capita compared to over 60% elsewhere on the continent. Dealing with Construction Permits.


Countries who supply foreign aid may encourage conflict. Brigham Young University published a study in 2011 with Harvard which looked at foreign aid as a cause of violent armed conflict in the world. They found that 15 severe shocks to economies occurred when foreign aid was suddenly removed, leading to four armed conflicts in those nations ...


Evidence suggests that Africa's slave trades played an important part in the shaping of the continent not only in terms of economic outcomes, but cultural and social outcomes as well. This column, taken from a recently published VoxEU eBook, summarises studies that reveal the lasting toxic effects of Africa's four waves of slave trades on contemporary …


Africa's economy is considered to be one of the poorest economies in the world since World War II due to an historical lack of technology, education, and other essential factors that are necessary for a country to engender a way into development. As the world is becoming more globalized since World War II, we


At the time of the declaration, Africa had disproportionately high levels of conflict. State and non-state actors in Africa waged about 630 armed conflicts between 1990 and 2015 .


The same source concluded that 7 out of the 12 worst scores for political rights and civil liberties are African. 11 As noted, the reasons vary: patrimonialism gone wrong (the 'big man' problem), extreme state fragility and endemic conflict risks, the perverse mobilization of ethnicity by weak or threatened leaders.


For example, in Africa, food pro-duction decreased, while population increased. And world cereal production fell in 1993, according to the FAO, which predicted a food shortage in 20 countries during 1994. 12 However, most experts agree that there is no shortage of food, and that equitable distribution should be sufficient to meet all needs for ...


Today, corruption is everywhere in Africa and it is the major cause of poverty and conflicts. Corruption in Africa takes place in many forms. Corruption in Africa has grown at an alarming rate due ...


The Catholic Church in the Eastern Africa (AMECEA) countries have been actively involved in Reconciliation, Justice and Peace issues through Justice and Peace Commissions and networks, issuing Pastoral Letters, involvement in lobby, advocacy and mediation, civic education and promoting interfaith and ecumenical approaches to peace building and conflict resolution …


3 contents introduction an introduction to c onflict transformati 1. a brief overview of conflict t 2. designing processes: the accp conflict transformat ion methods 1. dialogue theory case study: yemen case study: morocco 2. mediation space and diapraxis theory case study: tajikistan 3. culturally-balanced co-mediation theory case study: denmark 4. local mediators


This bitter conflict has led to wanton destruction of lives and property, and this has become a source of great worry to the writers. This work investigates the conflicts existing between the two religions since the introduction of Christianity in Igbo land. It examines the nature, pattern, rationale for the conflicts.


An election that is not free and fair is one of the major causes of political instability in many countries across the globe. Mass unemployment and poverty can easily trigger political instability in any country. When majority of the people in a country are impoverished and cannot find jobs to do, then they vent their anger on the government ...


The solutions currently proposed to deal with the problem of conflict minerals can only avoid these delicate issues for a while, issues already set out in the Kassem report in 2002. At a time when the world is involved in a race to obtain raw material, the problem of conflict minerals needs political and not technical solutions.


Many Conflicts Throughout Africa. There have recently been numerous civil wars and conflicts going in Africa, some of which are still going on, including. Angola, which has seen an estimated 500,000 people killed since 1989 and an estimated 3 million refugees. It is also being torn apart due to resources such as diamonds and offshore oil, with ...


African colonization resulted to great negative impacts to the economy, social and political system of African States. The greatest negative impact of colonization was the exploitation of the natural resources by foreigners which did not benefit the local communities, but instead the colonizers.


One reason for the failure is that the 2020 goal was too ambitious given the number of conflicts on the continent. The second reason is that many are internal, arising from the grievances citizens...


CONFLICT RESOLUTION – Vol. II - Approaches to Conflict Resolution - Deborah F. Shmueli ©Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS) Bibliography Amy, D. (1987). The Politics of Environmental Mediation. New York, NY: Columbia University Press. [This book is a critical exploration of the advantages and disadvantages of environmental mediation ...


The United Nations Security Council may be about to pass its first-ever resolution on the implications of climate change for peace and security. The council has talked about climate security since 2007, and it has acknowledged that environmental challenges such as droughts and degradation of farming land can fuel conflicts in regions like the Sahel and the Horn of …


finding that war negatively affects development in the arena of capital accumulation, it is hypothesized that war would be associated with a decreased gross domestic product, i.e., a decline in the economic sector of a country decreased social development as indicated by medical personnel, life expectancy and infant mortality.


This study notes that in 2007 Africa saw 12 conflicts in 10 countries. Ten years later, in 2017, the number of conflicts was 18, taking place in 13 different countries. Using a second conflict lens, the number of non-state …


2 It is imperative to make some clarifications on Africa and Middle East. In this paper Africa refers to as sub-Saharan Africa and North Africa while the Middle East includes Arabian and Gulf countries, including Iran and Turkey. 3 This factor is relative. First, African countries are seen as more fragile than their Middle Eastern counterparts.


In 1979 the Federation of South African Trade Unions was formed (FOSATU), with the Council of Unions of South Africa (CUSA) being created in the following year. The National Union of Mine Workers (NUM) was created in 1982 and was involved greatly in the conflict against the ruling party in the country at the time.


Nuclear engineering specialist and programme manager, Nuclear Engineering at the North-West University, Dr Anthonie Cilliers, shares his opinion on the advantages, disadvantages and associated risks of nuclear energy. As an advocate of nuclear energy, Cilliers draws attention to some of the most pertinent issues that are currently at the forefront …


The major sources of conflict in Africa were land, chieftaincy, personal relationship issues, family property, honour, murder or poisoning, and matrimonial fall-outs. In resolving these kinds of conflicts, the principles of equity and justice, which is entrenched in African customs and traditions, were upheld.


Analysis in brief | Africa's 17 landlocked countries have built-in geographic disadvantages that contribute to poor performances in economic, social and even political growth.Some landlocked nations have overcome these …


Countries in Africa who receive foreign aid are under the suspicion of creating conflict or prolonging its existence because the presence of violence brings more money into the country. There are times when this resource can offer stability to a country, but it should never be tied to a specific regime or structure.


The emphasis in the new curriculum after 1996 in South Africa was placed on the transition from the traditional aims and objectives approach to Outcomes-based …


relationship between political institutions and violence in Africa. 2. Understanding the Causes of Conflicts in Africa Africa has a high prevalence of civil wars and this is commonly attributed to the ethnic diversity of its countries. This inference seems self-evident to many, given that African rebel movements almost always are ethnically ...


From Africa to the Western Hemisphere, the slave trade not only displaced millions of Africans to a life of exploitation, but also a painful death. Nobody knew the total number of people who died during slavery in Africa. The Atlantic slave trade Many died a slowly painful death during transportation and imprisonment, or in horrendous ...